RUSSIA: USSR (1917-1991 - Page 1)
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TYPE: Шлем-Маска
TRANSLATION: Helmet Mask
ALIASES: БН-T5 (BN-T5)
DATE: c. 1930s/1940s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Military/Civilian/Industrial
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-002

NOTES: During WWII, the Soviets developed an updated version of the WWI Zelinsky-Kumant mask for military and civilian use. It used a helmet design similar to its WWI predecessor, but was made of thick molded rubber instead of glued sheet rubber. The face piece was referred to as the Шлем-Маска (Helmet Mask) but was also sometime called the БН-T5, which referred to it being an Army mask that used the T-5 type filter canister. A long corrugated breathing hose connected the face piece to the large metal filter unit, which was carried in a satchel at the wearer's side. A 'flapper' type exhale valve protected by a metal guard was also part of the assembly. When in use, the rubber protrusion between the eyes was turned in, to allow the wearer to insert a finger and wipe condensation from the eye pieces. Like all early Soviet gas masks, this type is quite scarce today as most were discarded after the end of the war.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Маска 0-8
TRANSLATION: Mask O-8
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1940
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Military/Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-003

NOTES: During WWII, the Маска 0-8 was issued to the Soviet Red Army and also possibly to civilians and civil defense personnel. The mask was made of thin but durable rubber and was assembled with a long breathing tube and a Т-Ч type filter canister. There was no inner mask, making the Маска 0-8 prone to fogging. Although they are very much alike, the Маска 0-8 should not be confused with the Маска МОД-0-8 (Mask MOD-O-8), a similar mask used during the same time period (see below). Like all WWII Russian masks, the Маска 0-8 is now very scarce and difficult to find in any condition.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Маска МОД-0-8
TRANSLATION: Mask MOD-O-8
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1940
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Military/Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-004

NOTES: The Маска МОД-0-8 is another mask used by the Soviet military during WWII. It is possible that it was meant to be an updated version of the Маска 0-8, as its features are very similar. However, the Маска 0-8 did not have an inner mask or any Tissot tubes, making it prone to fogging, but the МОД-0-8 used a single tube on the inside of the mask to help reduce condensation on the eye pieces. The face piece is also slightly larger, and the rubber used was a bit thicker. This most likely made the МОД-0-8 more durable and possibly more comfortable. Like the Маска 0-8, the МОД-0-8 is very scarce today, and when found is usually in poor condition.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Шлем-Маска ШМ-1
TRANSLATION: Helmet Mask SM-1
ALIASES: ShM1
DATE: c. 1939
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Military/Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-005

NOTES: The WWII ШМ-1 is quite an important mask. Its design was the basis for a series of helmet type masks that went on to be used for decades after WWII. The former Soviet Union used several variations of the ШМ-1 for military, civilian and industrial purposes well into the 1980s. Many other countries, including most of the Warsaw Pact states and even China used helmet styled masks derived directly from the Soviet models. The early ШМ-1 looks almost identical to its modern counter-parts, but there are several things that distinguish it from later versions. Most notably, the Tissot styled tubes on the inside of the mask are separate, black rubber pipes that were not part of the mask's face piece mold. The version pictured to the right is of the earliest type, with a metal band used to secure the inlet/outlet assembly instead of the later and more commonly used crimped metal assembly (see ШМ-1 below) Today, WWII era ШМ-1 gas masks are quite scarce in any condition.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Шлем-Маска ШМ-1
TRANSLATION: Helmet Mask SM-1
ALIASES: ShM1
DATE: c. 1939
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Military/Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-006

NOTES: The WWII ШМ-1 is quite an important mask. Its design was the basis for a series of helmet type masks that went on to be used for decades after WWII. The former Soviet Union used several variations of the ШМ-1 for military, civilian and industrial purposes well into the 1980s. Many other countries, including most of the Warsaw Pact states and even China used helmet styled masks derived directly from the Soviet models. The early ШМ-1 looks almost identical to its modern counter-parts, but there are several things that distinguish it from later versions. Most notably, the Tissot styled tubes on the inside of the mask are separate, black rubber pipes that were not part of the mask's face piece mold. The version pictured to the right used a crimped metal ring to secure the inlet assmebly, which was the method used for all future versions of the ШМ-1. Today, WWII era ШМ-1 gas masks are quite scarce in any condition.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Шлем-Маска ШМ-1
TRANSLATION: Helmet Mask SM-1
ALIASES: ShM1
DATE: c. 1950s/1960s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Military/Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-015

NOTES: This version of the ШМ-1 is a post war model which used a new face piece mold that integrated the Tissot tubes on the inside of the mask. This change most likely reduced production costs and increased efficiency. It also probably made the mask more comfortable and enhanced the demisting of the eye pieces. This seems to be the only major design change that mask underwent during this time, however the mold was again updated in the 1970s again, but the changes were slight and almost unnoticeable.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Изолирующий Противогаз ИП-46
TRANSLATION: Insulator Gas Mask IP-46
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1940s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Military/Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-007

NOTES: The ИП-46 is an early Soviet rebreather system most likely used on board ships or inside tanks. The mask consisted of a 'helmet' type face piece that was attached to an elbow shaped metal pipe and corrugated hose tube. The rebreather unit was carried in a large canvas satchel in the chest position. Like all rebreather units, the ИП-46 was most likely intended for use during emergency rescue and escape situations. The ИП-46 went on to be used after WWII for industrial applications.

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DETAILS
TYPE:   Unknown
TRANSLATION: n/a
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1940s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Unknown
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-008

NOTES: This strange WWII era mask seems to be a combination of the IP-46 Rebreather and the Шлем-Маска (see above). The face piece is virtually identical to the
IP-46, while the breathing hose, exhale valve unit and filter canister are very similar to the Шлем-Маска
. It is possible that the mask was made from spare parts and/or was used for training purposes.

TYPE: Гражданский Противогаз 2 (ГП-2)
TRANSLATION: Civilian Gas Mask 2 (GP-2)
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-009

NOTES: The ГП-2 is a rare, early Russian mask issued to civilians during WWII. It features a fixed filter unit and a protected exhale valve on the left side of the face piece. The eye pieces are made from a thin transparent plastic similar to many other civilian masks from other countries. The ГП-2 is a simple mask and most likely only offered a limited amount of protection. It is also important to note that a later version of the ГП-2 was also manufactured (see below), fabricated from slightly different materials. ГП-2 gas masks are extremely rare today, and are typically quite expensive when found.

TYPE: Гражданский Противогаз 2 (ГП-2)
TRANSLATION: Civilian Gas Mask 2 (GP-2)
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-010

NOTES: The ГП-2 is a rare, early Russian mask issued to civilians during WWII. It features a fixed filter unit and a protected exhale valve on the left side of the face piece. The eye pieces are made from a thin transparent plastic similar to many other WWII era civilian masks from other countries. The ГП-2 is a simple mask and most likely only offered a limited amount of protection. It is also important to note that an earlier version of the ГП-2 was manufactured (see above), fabricated from slightly different materials. ГП-2 gas masks are extremely rare today, and are typically quite expensive when found.

TYPE:   Конский Сухой Противогаз КСПМ
TRANSLATION: Horse Gas Mask
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-011

NOTES: During WWII, the Soviet Army produced several different protective masks for horses. The mask pictured to the right was made of fabrisized rubber with two built in filter elements on each side. The mask fit over the horse's snout, and was then strapped to the animal's head via a series of belts. A similar mask was made during the 1950s and used in the USSR, Poland and possibly some other Eastern Bloc countries (see below).

TYPE:   Конский Сухой Противогаз
TRANSLATION: Horse Gas Mask
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1950s
FREQUENCY: Rare/Scarce
USAGE: USSR/Poland
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-012

NOTES: This post war Soviet horse gas mask is very similar in design to the WWII version (above). However, it was made of different materials and was accompanied by a pair of gas proof goggles. Like most horse respirators, this mask was probably used in conjunction with a gas proof cape and leggings. This mask comes stowed in a large wooden box.

TYPE: Гражданский Противогаз 4 (ГП-4у)
TRANSLATION: Civilian Gas Mask 4 (GP-4y)
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1950s/1960s
FREQUENCY: Common/Uncommon
USAGE: USSR
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-013

NOTES: The ГП-4у was most likely designed after WWII to be a civilian replacement for the Маска 0-8. There are several different versions of the ГП-4у, with the one pictured to the right being the most common, and most likely from the 1960s. An earlier version was also produced and was made of a soft gray rubber. Variants of the ГП-4у were also made in Poland and some other Eastern Bloc countries during the 1960's and 70s.

TYPE: MM1
ALIASES: Schutzmaske K (early East German designation)
DATE: c. 1950s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon/Rare
USAGE: USSR/East Germany
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: RU-014

NOTES: The MM1 Gas Mask is an earlier special purpose mask used for radio operators, tank commanders and officers who needed expanded voice communication capabilities. The mask was issued with a long breathing tube and a large cylindrical filter canister. A highly effective voice amplifier was fixed in the center of the face piece which allowed enhanced vocal communication. The MM1 was issued with both a long rubber breathing tube and with a filter attached directly to the face piece.

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