THE UK
TYPE: Hypo Helmet
ALIASES: Tube Helmet
DATE: c. 1915
FREQUENCY: Very Scarce
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-001

NOTES: The British Hypo Helmet is a very early and rare gas mask that was nothing more than a flannel bag with a single clear visor made from a thin sheet of mica. The whole mask itself was soaked in a hypo solution (sodium thiosulphate and glycerine) and worn tucked into the soldier's tunic. This process proved effective against chlorine gas, however the mask's fragile eye piece was prone to damage. The mask also had no expiratory valve, and as a result, the wearer was forced to breath his own recycled air. Intact Hypo Helmets are extremely rare today, as most were disposed of or deteriorated over the years.

TYPE: P Helmet /PH Helmet
ALIASES: Tube Helmet
DATE: c. 1915
FREQUENCY: Very Scarce
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-002

NOTES: With the introduction of Phosgene as a new chemical weapon in 1915, the British designed a new gas hood known as the P Helmet. It was made from two separate layers of flannelette, and was soaked in a new solution of sodium phenolate and glycerine. This mixture gave sufficient protection from both Chlorine and Phosgene. The mask also used two circular glass eye pieces instead of a single visor made from fragile mica or celluloid, improving the mask's durability. In addition to this, an exhale valve was also added in the form of a rubber flapper valve on the outside, and a short pipe on the inside, which was held in the mouth. Later, the solution was improved upon by adding hexamethylene-tetramine (hexamine), and thus the mask became known as the PH Helmet. P and PH Helmets are very scarce today, and when found are typically missing the external flapper type exhale valve.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Small Box Respirator (1st model)
ALIASES: SBR, BSBR
DATE: c. 1916
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-003

NOTES: The British Small Box Respirator was a significant departure from the rudimentary devices previously used during WWI. The "box" (now commonly known as a filter) consisted of a metal tin filled with highly absorbent charcoal mixed with layers of granulated alkaline perm-agnate. The box was connected to the mask via a short corrugated rubber hose, which was fixed to a metal pipe. The metal pipe served as both the mask's inlet and outlet assembly. It went into the mask and connected to a snorkel shaped mouth piece which was held between the teeth. Both inhaled and exhaled air went via the mouth, and to prevent nose breathing, a nostril clip was also incorporated inside the mask. Exhaled air was breathed back out along the black metal pipe, and exited via a flapper type check valve outside the mask (missing from the example at right). The face piece consisted of a baggy rubberized fabric that allowed the wearer to wipe condensation from the cellulose eye pieces while the mask was worn. This was accomplished by pushing in the fabric next to the eye pieces with a finger from outside the mask. The Small Box Respirator's design was later copied in the US, and as a result many early US gas mask designs were based on the original British design.

 
DETAILS
TYPE: Small Box Respirator (2nd model)
ALIASES: SBR, BSBR
DATE: c. 1917
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-004

NOTES: This version of the Small Box Respirator was an updated revision of the first type. A flat metal loop was attached to the metal pipe which housed the rubber flapper type exhale valve. This acted as a guard to help prevent the fragile valve from being torn off (it is however missing from the example to the right). The remaining features of the mask were not changed, however the mask's face piece may have been reinforced with some extra cement around the edges. The head harness configuration and nose clip assembly did not change. This version of the mask seems to be slightly more rare than the first type.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. III
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1920s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-005

NOTES: The Mk. III Service Respirator was one of the first molded face piece respirator designs used by the British military. The mask was made from fabricized rubber materiel with two glass eye pieces. A metal inlet/outlet assembly was positioned on the front of the mask, which connected to a flapper type exhale valve (missing in example to the right) and a short corrugated rubber hose. A six point elastic head harness was used for suspension. Mk. III masks are very scarce today and when found are typically in very poor condition.

TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. IV
ALIASES: General Service Respirator
DATE: c. late 1920s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-006

NOTES: The Mk. IV Service Respirator was a very successful design that went on to be copied in one form or another by several countries throughout Europe. The Mk. IV was based on the earlier Mk. III Service Respirator (above). The first version used a brown Type E filter canister, and was later updated with a red painted canister (see below). Both the face piece and the corrugated hose were made from molded rubber covered in a stockinette material. The mask was carried in a tan haversack which was worn in the chest position.

TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. IV
ALIASES: General Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Common
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-007

NOTES: This version of the Mk. IV Service Respirator is basically identical to the above version, but was equipped with a newer, red painted Type E filter canister. This change was most likely made to indicate a change in the filter's contents to protect against additional war gases. This version is the most commonly found version of the Mk. IV masks.

TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. IV (updated)
ALIASES: General Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Common/Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-008

NOTES: This version of the Mk. IV Service Respirator was updated slightly from the previous version to accommodate for more head sizes. Also, the mask's face piece mold was changed slightly to create a better and more comfortable fit. This version is also frequently seen with a black rubber hose instead of the fabric covered tube as with previous versions.

TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. IV
ALIASES: General Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-009

NOTES: This version of the Mk. IV Service Respirator came equipped with a Type F filter, which was most likely a special purpose filter designed for protecting against a specific agent. Overall, the rest of the mask is the same as the standard version that came with the Type E filter.

TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. IV (Special T. MIC.)
ALIASES: General Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-010

NOTES: This version of the Mk. IV Service Respirator came equipped with an integrated microphone inlet port. These masks were most likely reserved for radio operators or other personnel that needed the frequent use of telephones or other devices that could be attached to an external microphone. These special "mic" versions are somewhat more rare, as fewer were manufactured.

TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. IV
ALIASES: General Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon/Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-011

NOTES: In some cases, a respirator with an extended breathing tube was needed. This facilitated the manufacture of Service Respirators that had an extra long tube. This gave the wearer the ability to sling the filter at his side instead of at his chest.

TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. IV (Special T. MIC.)
ALIASES: General Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-012

NOTES: This version of the Mk. IV Service Respirator used a long hose like the above version, and also came with a microphone inlet. This setup is somewhat rare, as most likely fewer were made in this configuration.

 
DETAILS
TYPE: Service Respirator, Mk. V
ALIASES: General Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1940s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-013

NOTES: The Mk. V gas mask was basically an upgraded version of the Mk. IV which was made from black rubber. The mask pictured to the right was made with an extra long corrugated breathing hose so the filter could be slung at the wearer's side. The standard version used a short hose with the filter carried in the chest position.

TYPE: La France Mask
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1940s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian/Industrial
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-014

NOTES: The La France Mask is a commercially constructed mask which used the British General Service Respirator face piece and a specialized filter canister designed to protect against specific industrial hazards. La France made many different masks for use against toxic smokes, gases and particles, most of which were based on the WWII General Service Respirator design.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Puretha General Service Respirator
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-015

NOTES: The Puretha General Service Respirator was another commercially assembled mask which used the British General Service Respirator face piece. The mask was equipped with a large filter canister designed to protect against war gases. This mask was most likely sold to civilians and civil defense personnel who wanted to higher level of protection and could afford better masks than those provided by the government.

TYPE: Civilian Duty Respirator
ALIASES: C.6, Special Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civil Defense
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-016

NOTES: The Civilian Duty Respirator was a widely manufactured gas mask that was issued to civilians who were actively involved in civil defense duties. The mask was much sturdier than the General Civilian Respirator and used a better quality charcoal. The construction of the Civilian Duty respirator remained the same throughout the war years, with some slight variation when the mask was produced by different manufacturers.

TYPE: Civilian Duty Respirator
ALIASES: Special Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civil Defense
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-017

NOTES: This version of the Civilian Duty Respirator was basically identical to the above version, but had an extra filter element taped to the front of the mask. This additional filter was designed to protect against arsine.

TYPE: Civilian Duty Respirator (with Microphone attached)
ALIASES: C.6, Special Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civil Defense
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-037

NOTES: This version of the Civilian Duty Respirator was fitted with a special microphone and headset so that telephone operators could function during a gas attack. The microphone unit was inserted a the special protrusion of rubber on the side of the face piece and held in place with a metal band. These special headsets are quite rare today but can still often be found in good condition.

TYPE: R.A.F./R.C.A.F. Gas Mask and Flight Helmet
ALIASES: Civilian Duty Respirator
DATE: c. 1940s
FREQUENCY: Scarce
USAGE: The UK/Canada
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: CA-009

NOTES: This particular British Civilian Duty Respirator has been modified to incorporate a microphone that could be attached to a British or Canadian flight helmet. This setup may be a one-of-a-kind design or an experimental model, as the modifications appear to be hand made. It may have been used in both the UK and Canada, but do to lack of sufficient documentation on this item, it is unknown.

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DETAILS
TYPE: Civilian Duty Respirator
ALIASES: Special Service Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Rare/Scarce
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civil Defense
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-018

NOTES: This version of the Civilian Duty Respirator was specially designed to protect against ammonia, with a special blue painted filter canister. This mask was manufactured by Siebe Gorman and was most likely produced in limited numbers.

TYPE: General Civilian Respirator
ALIASES: C.1, G.C. Respirator
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Common
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-019

NOTES: The WWII British General Civilian Respirator is quite possibly one of the most common British WWII era gas masks, and it can still be found in excellent condition with its original cardboard carton. Millions of these masks were issued as part of a historically large civilian defense program that took place in Great Britain during the war. The mask was very simple, made from thin sheet rubber with a single clear plastic visor of cellulose acetate. There was no exhale valve and only a three strap head harness to hold the mask in place.

TYPE: General Civilian Respirator
ALIASES: C.1, G.C. Respirator
DATE: c. late 1930s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-020

NOTES: This version of the General Civilian Respirator was updated and manufactured with molded sheet rubber, making it more comfortable and generally of a higher quality. The eye piece was more secure as was the head harness. This step was taken most likely to provide a better fitting, more comfortable mask that was still cheap to produce and issue to the civilian populace.

TYPE: General Civilian Respirator
ALIASES: C.1, G.C. Respirator
DATE: c. late 1930s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-021

NOTES: This version of the General Civilian Respirator is identical to the above version, but was fitted with a flapper type exhale valve. The lack of any type of exhale valve was one of the major problems with the General Civilian Respirator, and as such this modification was made in small number to some late war versions of the mask to aid those with trouble exhaling hard enough to push air out through the sides of the mask. This version was made in much smaller numbers, and is someone more difficult to find today.

TYPE: Helmet Respirator
ALIASES: Invalid Respirator
DATE: c. 1940s
FREQUENCY: Rare/Scarce
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-022

NOTES: During WWII, the British designed a special device for use by those who had certain medical conditions which prevented the use of regular gas masks. This device was dubbed the Helmet Respirator, and was also sometimes called the Invalid Respirator. It was a large and alien looking contraption that fit over the wearers entire head and shoulders. It had two circular eye pieces and a large bellows that could be operated by the wearer. The unit was secured by two cords which could be tied under the arms and around the chest.

TYPE: Hospital Respirator
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1940s
FREQUENCY: Rare/Scarce
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-023

NOTES: The British Hospital Respirator was another special purpose civilian respirator designed for use by hospital patients who were bed-ridden with sickness or head wounds. The mask had a large clear plastic visor, which allowed medical personnel to easily see the patient's face. A long corrugated tube connected to a bellows was used to pump in filtered air. The bellows could be operated by the patient or by a care taker. Like the Helmet Respirator, the Hospital Respirator is a rare mask today, but when found is typically in good condition.

TYPE: Baby's Anti-Gas Helmet
ALIASES: Infant Carrier
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Common
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-024

NOTES: The Baby's Anti-Gas Helmet is another interesting civilian defense device issued by the Ministry of Home Security in Great Britain during WWII. The helmet was intended for infants and small children that could not use the Small Child's Respirator effectively. It consisted of a metal frame attached to a rubberized fabric bag, with a large plastic visor framed by leather attached to the front. The child could be inserted into the contraption via an opening in the bottom. He/she was then strapped in and secured with legs dangling from the bottom. The care taker could then carry the child around easily and pump in filtered air via a bellows system on the side. The Infant Carrier was manufactured in large numbers by several companies, giving rise to some variation of assembled units. There was also a very similar device manufactured in Canada, based directly on the British Baby's Anti-Gas Helmet.

TYPE: The Siebe Gorman Anti-Gas Hood For Babies And
TYPE: Young Children
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1939
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-046

NOTES: This version of the Baby's Anti-Gas Helmet is a rarer type not commonly found. The contraption does not have the typical metal support frame, but instead is backed with a large pad. Like the above type, the same method of insertion was used to put an infant inside, and a similar means of suspension was also employed. This version also used a slightly different bellows assembly and a smaller visor.

TYPE: Small Child's Respirator
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1930s
FREQUENCY: Rare/Scarce
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-025

NOTES: The first gas mask issued specifically for use by small children in the UK during WWII was the Small Child's Respirator. It was made from molded black sheet rubber and came equipped with a flapper type exhale valve. A small blue filter was fixed to the front of the mask, and a small elastic cord head harness was used for suspension. The mask was later made from bright orange colored rubber, which was designed to ease the anxiety commonly felt among children when required to don the mask. This change in color was also most likely a move to make children easily stand out in large groups. The original version, made from black rubber is considerably more rare than the orange version (below).

TYPE: Small Child's Respirator
ALIASES: Mickey Mouse Mask
DATE: c. 1930s/1940s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-026

NOTES: The second version of the Small Child's Respirator was made from molded orange sheet rubber. The filter and head harness remained the same. The bright color of the mask made it seem more playful, earning it the nickname, the Mickey Mouse Mask (not to be mistaken with the US Mickey Mouse mask, which actually did look like the Disney cartoon character). The bright color eased the anxiety often felt by children required to wear the mask, and also most likely served as a means to make small children stand out in crowds. The orange version of the Small Child's Respirator is quite common, and can usually be found in good condition with the original cardboard carton.

TYPE: Light Anti-Gas Respirator, Mk.1
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1943
FREQUENCY: Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-027

NOTES: The British Mk.1 Light Anti-Gas Respirator was designed to free the masked soldier from the cumbersome breathing hose and large box filter commonly used with most early WWII gas masks. The Mk.1 used a face piece derived from the earlier Civilian Duty Respirator, with a fully molded face piece and two circular glass eye pieces. A 60mm threaded inlet was positioned on the left side of the masks face piece. Here is where a removable drum type filter canister could be attached. A large exhale valve was positioned on the front of the mask, further reducing breathing resistance. This successful design gave the fighting soldier greater dexterity in the field and allowed for at least right-handed soldiers to properly sight their rifles from the shoulder position. The Mk.1 Light Anti-Gas Respirator was also the primary inspiration for the US M5-11-7 Assault Service Gas Mask. The Mk.1 is quite common, and can usually be found in good condition with its small green carrier.

TYPE: Light Anti-Gas Respirator Mk.1
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1943
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-047

NOTES: This version of the Mk.1 Light Anti-Gas Respirator used a different filter with several holes on the outside. It is possible that this filter was designed during the experimental stages to test breathing resistance through a cheek mounted filter system.

TYPE: Light Anti-Gas Respirator Mk.1
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1943
FREQUENCY: Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-028

NOTES: This version of the Mk.1 Light Anti-Gas Respirator was updated with a new exhale valve that incorporated a speech diaphragm. The mask's filter canister was also changed to make it smaller and lighter.

TYPE: Light Anti-Gas Respirator Mk.1
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1950s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon/Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-029

NOTES: This post-war version of the Light Anti-Gas Respirator was updated with a new outlet assembly and a different rubber material. The basic structure of the mask did not change much however. The carrier and filter also stayed basically the same.

TYPE: General Civilian Respirator
ALIASES: C.7
DATE: c. 1950s
FREQUENCY: Very Scarce
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-030

NOTES: After WWII, the C.7 General Civilian Respirator was designed as a replacement for the earlier General Civilian Respirator. The C.7 used two plastic eye pieces and a better fitting rubber face piece. An exhale valve was also made standard with the C.7. The C.7 was the last gas mask made by the government for use by civilians in Great Britain.

TYPE: Puretha Respirator Type 'C'
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1950s/1960s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian/Industrial
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-031

NOTES: This respirator was most likely a commercially available mask used for protection against industrial hazards. The mask's face piece was made from rubber with a large clear visor that allowed for a full view of the wearer's face. This setup most likely allowed for a greater level of peripheral vision.

TYPE: S6 NBC Respirator
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1960s
FREQUENCY: Uncommon
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-032

NOTES: The S6 was the first in a line of modern NBC protective masks developed at Porton Down. The mask was made of soft black rubber, with an inner peripheral face seal making the mask very comfortable to wear. A 40mm threaded filter canister was attached to the side of the face piece, and the mask came in both left and right handed versions. A combination exhale valve and speech diaphragm assembly was positioned on the front of the mask. A six strap elastic head harness was used for suspension. The S6 also incorporated an inner nose cup, which helped reduce fogging of the eye pieces.

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DETAILS
TYPE: S10 NBC Respirator
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1990s
FREQUENCY: Common
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-033

NOTES: The S10 was developed in the late 1980s as a modern NBC respirator that could replace the S6. The S10's successful design was used throughout the 1990s and eventually lead to the development of the superb FM12 NBC Defense Respirator. The S10 was equipped with a drinking tube, voice amplifier and the ability to attach corrective optics. The 40mm thread filter could be attached to either side of the face piece, by swapping the side mounted speech diaphragm. An inner mask was also included to reduce fogging. The S10 was manufactured in large numbers by Avon Rubber, and was used extensively during the Gulf War in the early 1990s.

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DETAILS
TYPE: N10
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1990s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-034

NOTES: The N10 is a commercially available civilian version of the S10. It does not have a drinking device or voice amplifier on the side of the mask. The eye piece of the N10 were made from flat pieces of hard clear plastic, as opposed to the angled plastic eye pieces used with the S10.

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DETAILS
TYPE: SF10
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. 1990s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Civilian (Law Enforcement)
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-035

NOTES: The SF10 is another NBC defense mask based on the successful S10 design. The SF10 was however intended for use by police for riot control and was also possibly issued to SAS teams. Like the N10, the mask has no drinking device or speech diaphragm on the side.

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DETAILS
TYPE: FM12 NBC Respirator
ALIASES: n/a
DATE: c. late 1990s
FREQUENCY: Rare
USAGE: The UK
FUNCTION: Military
LMàG REFERENCE CODE: UK-036

NOTES: The FM12 is the most updated mask in use by the British today. Its advanced design owes its origin to the S10. The FM12 features all the modern amenities available to respirator design, including a drinking device, speech diaphragm, net type head harness and ability to insert corrective lens. The FM12 has very little "dead space" on the inside of the mask, making for one of the best fitting and most comfortable NBC respirators in use today. An export version of the FM12 is also in use in The Netherlands.

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DETAILS
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